2011 Nobel Prize

2011 Nobel  Prize  in Physics
The  2011 Nobel Prize  in  Physics is  awarded “for the  discovery  of the  accelerating expansion  of the  Universe through  observations  of   distant supernovae”.  The  Royal  Swedish Academy  of  Sciences  has  decided  to award  the Nobel Prize  in Physics  for 2011  with  one  half  to  Saul Perlmutter,   The  Supernova Cosmology  Project(Lawrence Berkeley National
Laboratory  and University of California),and the other half jointly to Brian P. Schmidt, The High-z  Supernova  Search  Team (Australian National University), and Adam  G.   Riess,  The  High-z Supernova  Search  Team  (Johns Hopkins  University  and  Space Telescope  Science  Institute.

2011 Nobel Prize  in Chemistry    
The 2011 Nobel Prize in Chemistry is
awarded  “for  the  discovery  of
quasicrystals”.  The Royal  Swedish
Academy  of  Sciences  has  decided  to
award  the Nobel  Prize  in Chemistry
for 2011 to Dan Shechtman Technion
- Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa,

2011 Nobel  Prize  in Physiology
or Medicine
The 2011 Nobel Prize in Physiology or
Medicine was divided, one half jointly
to  Bruce A.  Beutler  and  Jules A.
Hoffmann “for  their  discoveries
concerning  the  activation  of  innate
immunity” and the other half to Ralph
M.  Steinman “for  his  discovery  of
the  dendritic  cell  and  its  role  in
adaptive  immunity”.

2011 Nobel Prize  in Literature
The Nobel Prize in Literature 2011 is
awarded  to  Tomas  Tranströmer
“because,  through  his  condensed,
translucent   images,   he  gives  us
fresh  access  to  reality”.

The Nobel  Peace Prize  for  2011
The Norwegian Nobel Committee has decided  that  the Nobel  Peace  Prize for 2011 is to be divided in three equal parts between Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, Leymah Gbowee  and  Tawakkul Karman for their non-violent struggle
for  the  safety  of  women  and  for women’s rights to full participation in peace-building  work.   We  cannot
achieve democracy  and  lasting peace in the world unless women obtain  the same opportunities as men to influence developments  at  all  levels  of  society. In October  2000,  the UN  Security Council adopted Resolution 1325.  The
resolution  for  the  first  time made violence  against   women  in  armed conflict an international security issue.  It  underlined  the  need  for women  to become  participants  on  an  equal footing with men  in  peace  processes and in peace work in general. Ellen  Johnson Sirleaf  is Africa’s  first democrat ically  elected  female president.   Since  her  inauguration  in 2006, she has contributed to securing peace  in  Liberia,   to  promot ing economic and social development, and to  strengthening  the  posit ion  of women.   Leymah Gbowee mobilized and  organized women  across  ethnic
and religious dividing lines to bring an end to the long war in Liberia, and to ensure  women’s  part icipat ion  in elections.   She  has  since worked  to enhance  the  influence  of  women  in West Africa during and after war.  In the most  trying  circumstances,  both before and during  the “Arab  spring”, Tawakkul  Karman  has  played a leading  part   in  the  struggle  for women’s  rights  and  for  democracy and peace  in Yemen

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