Sunday, January 22, 2012


 Albedo  of  a  surface  is  defined  by  the  ratio  of  outgoing  to  incoming  solar
radiation.  Keeping  this  in  view,  which  of  the  following  surface  will  have  the
highest albedo?
1.  Water
2.  Sand
3.  Snow
4.  Forest

Geostrophic  wind  is  a  balance  between  the  pressure  gradient  force  and  the
Coriolis force. In non-geostrophic wind, flow will become circulatory because of
1.  pressure difference term
2.  momentum term
3.  temperature difference term
4.  shear term

In valley-mountain system, cold air is heavier than warm air, and thus flows down
hill as a katabatic wind. In the case of an anabatic wind,
1.  wind rises vertically in the valley
2.  wind forms updraft and downdraft motion
3.  wind will flow along the slope
4.  wind will have cross mountain flow

Cyclones or hurricanes do not develop within about 50
 N and S of the equator
because the
1.  pressure gradient is weak
2.  trade winds converge
3.  ocean surface temperature is high
4.  Coriolis force is very weak

When statically stable air flown over a hill or ridge, it is set into oscillation. These
waves are known as
1.  Rossby waves
2.  Kelvin waves
3.  gravity waves
4.  mountain waves

A  ceaseless movement  of wind  and  ocean  currents  results  in  global  circulation
because of
1.  unequal distribution of oceanic and continental mass
2.  radiative forcing due to Sun-Earth interaction
3.  tilt of Earth's axis
4.  revolution / rotation of Earth
The organism that can take N2 directly from sea water is
1.  foraminifera
2.  cocolithophore
3.  cyanobacteria
4.  dinoflagellates

Which is the major limiting element in marine primary production?
1.  sodium
2.  nitrogen
3.  carbon
4.  argon

If  the  sea  surface  temperature  is  increased  in  Antarctic  Ocean  due  to  global
warming, the dissolved oxygen in its deep water will
1.  increase
2.  initially increase and then decrease
3.  decrease
4.  not change

Hydrogenous sediment in the oceans is
1.  derived from skeletal debris
2.  precipitated by chemical or biochemical reactions
3.  produced by weathering of rocks on land
4.  ejected by volcanoes

Sea surface  temperature (SST)  is an  important and variable parameter of oceans.
In the Indian Ocean, SST variability has the largest amplitude on the timescale of
1.  century
2.  decadal
3.  interannual
4.  seasonal

The speed of current in the wind-driven Ekman layer
1.  increases with depth
2.  decreases with depth
3.  remains constant
4.  first decreases and then increases

Which one of the following is not true in case of the Arabian Sea?
1.  seasonal high biological productivity
2.   mid-depth oxygen minimum zone
3.  net annual evaporation
4.  net annual precipitation

Silicon limitation in the upper ocean will hamper the growth of
1.  cocolithophos
2.  foraminifera
3.  diatam
4.  corals

Which one of the following rock suites represents the oceanic lithosphere?

1.  turbidite
2.  ophiolite
3.  seismite
4.  granulite

Which one of the following is defined by shear strain?
1.  change in length
2.  change in angle
3.  change in volume
4.  change in area

Which one of the following is a measure of compressibility of a material?
1.  elasticity (E) Young's modulus
2.  rigidity (G) shear modulus
3.  Poisson's ratio (γ)
4.  viscosity (η)

A light beam is incident on a mirror at an angle  with the normal to the mirror. If
the mirror is rotated in the direction of incident beam by an angle r, what will be
the rotation angle of the reflected beam with respect to its previous position?
1.  r
2.  r +  
3.  r - 
4.  2r

Coesite, a high pressure polymorph of quartz is found in rocks exposed on Earth's
surface because, coesite
1.  is stable at low temperature
2.  is a high density mineral
3.  is not kinetically favoured for decomposition
4.  has the lowest free energy at the Earth's surface

In Al2SiO5, the Al2O3 content (in wt %) is close to
1.  80
2.  60
3.  40
4.  20

In the feldspar mineral structure, chemical substitutions such as Ca
  Na

+ Si
and Na
 K+

 are common. Amongst the feldspar group of minerals, which
one should have the highest amount of Al?
1.  albite
2.  anorthite
3.  orthoclase
4.  oligoclase

Generation of nuclear energy requires availability of minerals containing U and
Th. Which one of the following rocks is known to have high concentrations of
nuclear minerals?
1.  basalt
2.  diorite
3.  granodiorite
4.  pegmatite

Which one of the following minerals will have no useful nutrient elements for
plant life?
1.  plagioclase feldspar
2.  quartz
3.  olivine
4.  biotite

The atmosphere of  Venus has about 97% CO2. If so, the planet should have
1.  an abundance of photosynthesizing bacteria
2.  an abundance of water
3.  no life at all as the surface should be very hot
4.  an abundance of fossil fuel deposits
Which one of the following drainage patterns is typically associated with fold
mountain belts?
1.  parallel
2.  rectangular
3.  trellis
4.  dendritic

If the wave front is exactly parallel to the coast, which one of the following will
still occur along the coast?
1.  beach drift
2.  longshore drift
3.  longshore current
4.  wave refraction

A river will braid irrespective of the fact that it is gravel-bed, sand-bed or silt-bed
1.  sediment supply = sediment transport
2.  sediment supply < sediment transport
3.  sediment supply > sediment transport
4.  sediment supply >> sediment transport

If gA, gB, gC and gD are the Earth‟s normal gravity values at four locations A(20.0
, 79.9), B (19.9, 80.0), C (20.0, 80.1) and D (20.1, 80.0), then
1.  gA > gC ; gB = gD
2.  gA < gC ; gB = gD
3.  gA = gC ; gB > gD
4.  gA = gC ; gB < gD

If R is the ratio of the Earth‟s gravity field to its magnetic field at the equator, the
ratio of these fields at the poles would be approximately
1.  R/4
2.  R/2
3.  R
4.  2R

On the geoidal surface, the Earth‟s gravity field
1.  is everywhere zero
2.  is a constant and is normal to the surface
3.  varies along the surface, but is normal to it
4.  varies in magnitude and direction along the surface

An isostatically compensated elevated landmass is characterized by
1.  strong negative Bouguer and free-air anomalies
2.  strong negative Bouguer and little or no free-air anomalies
3.  strong positive Bouguer and little or no free-air anomalies
4.  strong positive Bouguer and free-air anomalies

The remnant magnetism in a rock solidified in the Earth‟s magnetic field at a
latitude of 30, dips
1.  at 30
2.  between 30and 45
3.  between 45 and 60
4.  at an angle greater than 60

The shadow zone is the region bounded by the disappearance of P and S waves,
and the onset of P waves
1.  reflected at the Earth‟s surface
2.  refracted through the fluid core
3.  reflected at the mantle-core boundary
4.  refracted through the fluid and solid cores

Statement I: Ferromagnetic minerals exhibit properties of paramagnetic minerals
beyond Curie temperatures.
Statement II: Mantle rocks are less magnetic than those of the upper crust.
1.  statements I and II are true; I explains II
2.  statements I and II are true, but I does not explain II
3.  statement I is true, but II is false
4.  statement I is false, but II is true

An example of intraplate volcanic activity is
1.  the Himalaya
2.  island arcs
3.  the Alps
4.  the Hawaiian islands

A region with nearly flat topography and large negative gravity anomaly suggests
1.  a root in the mantle
2.  thin crust with low density material underplating
3.  thick crust with high density material underplating
4.  thin crust

Heat is transported in the lithosphere through
1.  advection
2.  radiation
3.  conduction
4.  convection

The third most abundant gas in the Earth‟s atmosphere next to N2 and O2 is  
1.  water vapor
2.  Ar
3.  CO2
4.  O3

Somali jet during Indian summer monsoon season
1.  strengthens
2.  weakens
3.  remains the same
4.  reverses

In the troposphere, the temperature decreases as a function of height because
1.  air is incompressible and its pressure decreases with height
2.   air is compressible and its pressure increases with height
3.  air is compressible and its pressure decreases with height
4.  air is incompressible and its pressure increases with height

Which one of the following results in a decrease in the kinetic energy of a stream?
1.  bed erosion
2.  bed deposition
3.  bank erosion
4.  bank deposition (overbank)

Which one of the following statements is false?
1.  The organisms with hard parts (skeletons) appeared in early Cambrian
2.  Devonian is known as the "age of fishes"
3.  Graptolites appeared and become extinct during Paleozoic
4.  Permian/Triassic boundary mass extinction event was far less devastating than

the K-T boundary mass extinction event

Which rock type would constitute best aquifer?
1.  sandstone
2.  conglomerate
3.  limestone
4.  basalt

Which one of the following does not contribute to the mass wasting process in a
mountainous region?
1.  steep slope
2.  thick vegetation
3.  presence of water
4.  high relief

The distribution of plants and animals is largely controlled by climate and
geographic barriers, which are largely controlled by
1.  atmospheric processes
2.  oceanic processes
3.  tectonic processes
4.  soil forming processes
Most clay minerals have negative charge on their surfaces. This has an important
role for
1.  metal nutrients supply to the plants
2.  phosphate supply to the plants
3.  weatherability of clay minerals
4.  supply of H+
ions to the plants

In a satellite image, the intensity of reflected radiation recorded at 1.35 to 1.45 m
wave length is the least because of absorption of
1.  insolation by atmospheric CO2 and H2O
2.  radiation by water bodies at Earth‟s surface
3.  radiation by polluted water at Earth‟s surface
4.  insolation by atmospheric oxygen and ozone

Which one of the following wavelengths of visible spectrum penetrates deepest in
the oceanic euphotic layer?
1.  red light
2.  blue light
3.  yellow light
4.  UV light